Maps of the Jabal Maqla / Mount Sinai area

The following maps and images of the Mount Sinai site help show where each component is located. These maps show parts of northwestern Saudi Arabia, with the Red Sea’s Gulf of Aqaba to the west.

The image below shows how the sites allegedly matching the Exodus story are clustered together. Jabal Maqla, the favored candidate for Mount Sinai/Horeb, is the mountain with a black top.

To the northwest of Maqla, there is a marker locating the distinctive split rock that may be the “Rock of Horeb” in/near the Rephidim encampment (which is where the Israelites fought the Amalekites).

To the northeast of Maqla, you can see where an ancient, pre-Islamic burial site is located. It is away from the Holy Precinct near the mountain and outside of the plain where the Israelites would have camped. It is also off the path that the Israelites would travel through. Its placement makes it a match for the burial ground for the worshipers of the Golden Calf.

Directly to the east of the mountain, you can see where the possible Altar of Moses is located, at the foot of the mountain. The possible Cave of Elijah is almost directly above it. Further to the east (behind the Altar of Moses) is the archaeological site that may have been where the worship of the Golden Calf took place.

Image obtained via Google Earth
Image obtained via Google Earth
The above image shows three possible routes to Jabal Maqla/Mount Sinai if the Red Sea Crossing happened at Egypt's Nuweiba Beach. The route is dependent upon the significance of Magna, where there is a strong tradition that Moses and the Israelites camped. It has been suggested as the location of the Bitter Springs of Marah or one of the several campsites that the book of Exodus does not describe in detail.
The above image shows three possible routes to Jabal Maqla/Mount Sinai if the Red Sea Crossing happened at Egypt’s Nuweiba Beach. The route is dependent upon the significance of Magna, where there is a strong tradition that Moses and the Israelites camped, possibly after stopping at Elim. Image courtesy of DiscoveredSinai.com, a partner website.
This map details what we believe is the most plausible route by which the Israelites traveled out of Egypt into Midian and then to Mount Sinai.
As mentioned in our section discussing the Red Sea Crossing, some scholars advocate for an alternative location further south at the Straits of Tiran. The number 3 marker identifies where Jabal Maqla is located, with the peninsula-shaped plain in front of it.
As mentioned in our section discussing the Red Sea Crossing, some scholars advocate for an alternative location further south at the Straits of Tiran. The number 3 marker identifies where Jabal Maqla is located, with the peninsula-shaped plain in front of it.
The route to Nuweiba Beach, as theorized by Dr. Glen Fritz. Image courtesy of Glen Fritz, The Lost Sea of the Exodus.
Another view of the route from Egypt to Midian, with the Biblical places identified by name, according to Dr. Glen Fritz's research. Image courtesy of Glen Fritz.
Another view of the route from Egypt to Midian, with the Biblical places identified by name, according to Dr. Glen Fritz’s research. Image courtesy of Glen Fritz.
This image shows Nuweiba Beach and how it fits the descriptions of the Red Sea Crossing site from the book of Exodus and non-Biblical sources like Josephus. Here, the Israelites would be surrounded with mountains on three sides and the Red Sea’s Gulf of Aqaba in front of them. Image courtesy of Glen Fritz.
A rough depiction of the underwater path that stretches from Nuweiba Beach to the Saudi shore with a gentle slope and steep sides. Image courtesy of Glen Fritz.
A rough depiction of the underwater path that stretches from Nuweiba Beach to the Saudi shore with a gentle slope and steep sides. Image courtesy of Glen Fritz.

9 thoughts on “Maps of the Jabal Maqla / Mount Sinai area”

  1. Randyl Kent Plampin

    On the web page https://www.jabalmaqla.com/maps-journey-sites-sinai/ you said:
    To the northwest of Maqla, there is a marker locating the distinctive split rock that may be the “Rock of Horeb” in/near the Rephidim encampment (which is where the Israelites fought the Hebrews).
    I think you meant too say that the Israelites fought the Amalekites. (Ex 17)
    Also, please pass along to the experts that the possible route was initially directly from Goshen to somewhere near what is now Gaza. This is the probable reason why Pharaoh did not pursue them as the effort would have been wasted since the Israelites could enter Canaan before his army could reach them. They abruptly turned South to the location indicated by Mr. Fritz and is the reason why they were then pursued. (Ex 14:3) This, however, is just conjecture on my part. Nevertheless, please consider it among the possibilities. Excellent website. Absolutely excellent.

    1. Thank you! Yes, we will fix that. Thank you for your thoughts on the circumstances surrounding the Exodus story. It is fascinating to review all of these details to understand their contexts. The well-known trade route from Egypt to Midian would not have led the Israelites into Gaza (the land of the Phillistines) as it was just south of that area.

  2. Question: are we analyzing the crossing using current data, but not taking into consideration the landscape from 3500 years ago?
    For example, the width of the Red Sea is quite wide, but I wonder if 3500 years ago it may have been more narrow giving plausible rise to the notion that a strong, easterly wind (driven by Divine hand) could have caused a narrow passage to emerge, allowing the Israelites a means to cross the sea with ease?
    Landscapes change over time, and we are analyzing the sea crossing using current topographical models. Is it possible to assume that the width of the Red Sea was more narrow 3500 years ago?

    1. It’s possible, but I’ve been told that the changes would be minimal. We are looking for more analysis of that. In “The Lost Sea of the Exodus,” Dr. Fritz points out that the Hebrew word usage indicates that the strong easterly wind is not the only weather phenomenon responsible for the waters parting, and other verses like Psalm 114:3-5 indicate seismic activity accompanied it. The strong easterly wind, as the Exodus story claims, could have dried the path. The historian Josephus also describes a very dramatic storm.

  3. Pingback: Jethro and Moses in Midian - Jabal Maqla

  4. I would expect that the force of the water after crashing back into place would have lowered the underwater bridge on which the Israelites had crossed. It makes me think of the Mt St Helens eruption and the force of the water being thrown from Spirit Lake onto the mountains and washing all of the trees down into the lake. The force of this water falling back into place I can’t see not dropping down the path to some extent of what it may have been when they crossed.

  5. There still exist a road in 2 to 4 m (13 ft) water quite close (about 200 m – 220 yard) to the present coast between Venice and Grado in the north Adriatic. This road is estimated to exist at least since the Hallstatt period (1’200 bc). There are also piers in Istria from the same period, which are covered by 5 m (16 ft) of water where I used to dive as teenager. This could indicate that the sea was exposing land-strips in the Gulf of Aqaba, which are nowadays covered by at least 6 m (20 ft) of water. I don’t have the marine charts with bathymetric lines of that region but would be pleased if somebody can check that in the straits of Tiran, which might be a more logical path. I’m reading this site with the highest interest. My compliments.

    1. Just received the original Admiralty map of the Tiran area and the whole Gulf of Aqaba. My money is on Tiran crossing. The seismic data suggest that the two narrow passages, where Moises definitely couldn’t cross are from about 2’000 to 600 years ago. That may be confirmed by scientific research, which wasn’t permitted in the past years. The Island of the Baal cult is completely wiped of every construction. This may indicate a huge earthquake and/or tsunami wave.

  6. If either Nuweiba Beach or Tiran or any location on the Gulf of Aqcaba is the crossing, then Siani would have to be east of Aqcaba?

    Another question: If the traditional Siani site is assumed, then where could have the crossing occurred?

    These questions seem to put the traditional site into question without having to know where the mount is.

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